Saturday, July 14, 2012

Diet for Pregnancy (Part 4)

There are more common health problems during pregnancy such as nausea and vomiting. It is common but tends to reduce risk of miscarriage. The cause may relate with increased level of human chorionic gonadotropin, progesterone, estragon. Normally, it occurs during the beginning of fourth week but will start disappear on 10th week. However, frequent vomiting can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalance or weight loss as the loss of appetite towards food intake. Thus, you should try separating the liquid and solid food intake, select well tolerated food such as hard-boiled eggs, popcorn, yogurt, crackers and noodles or porridge. It is advised to ingest small meal frequently, do not get bed with full stomach, and avoid foods heartburn (spicy, high fat, beans, citrus, peppermint, coffee). Besides, avoid any artificial sweeteners, alcohol, recreational drugs, and cigarettes with the potential of harming your soon to be conceived baby.



Human milk feeding is adequate as the sole source of nutrition for up to age 6 months providing that the maternal diet and reserves are adequate plus a sufficient quantity is transferred to the infant. The recommended energy intake during the first 6 months of lactation is an additional 500 kcal with extra 20g protein which means a total of 2300 Kcal under the assumption that 170 kcal/d will be mobilized from energy stores accumulated in pregnancy. The recommended energy intake after 6 months is reduced to an additional 400 kcal/d with extra 15g protein which is 2000-2200Kcal because milk production rates decrease to 600 mL/d. However, this energy calculation needs to be calculated based on different weight. Normal weight can be calculated according to the above energy recommendation while overweight or obese person should maintain a 1600-1800 Kcal for further weight gain prevention and able to lose weight effectively. Of course, protein is needed to maintain adequately for the quality of milk production and calcium intake.

哺乳期间的营养需要比起怀孕时的营养更为重要。婴儿从出生到大概六个月时,体重可达到出生体重的一倍,这全依赖于母乳的营养。所以,这六个月母亲所摄取的营养是非常重要的,必须确保饮食营养是充足让婴儿吸收,因为婴儿只依靠母乳得到营养。因此,建议在哺乳期的前6个月摄入额外的20克蛋白质,增加500卡路里,这意味着每天摄取将在2300卡路里。 6个月后推荐的能量摄入将减少,只需要额外15克蛋白,这是2000-2200Kcal。因为牛奶产量率会减少到600毫升/天。然而,这种能量的计算还需要根据不同重量计算。正常体重可以根据上述能源的建议,而超重或肥胖应保持16001800年为预防体重增加,同时有效地进行减肥。 当然充分的蛋白质是必要的,尤其从牛奶方面因含钙量也很重要。

At present, our information about the role of dietary supplementation in lactation is limited. A balance diet during lactation is important rather than then supplements. A supplement of vitamin D (10 g/d) is recommended for women who avoid milk and other foods fortified with vitamin D. Similarly, a supplement of vitamin B-12 (2.6 g/d) is recommended for lactating women who are complete vegetarians.


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